Evaluate and characterize performance in dual electrolyte battery with a neutral salt buffer and separate ion selective membranes. Evaluate and characterize performance in dual electrolyte battery with proton exchange membrane separating an alkaline with a bulky cation.
Investigate alternatives to the sulfuric acid/bipolar membrane/sodium hydroxide dual electrolyte configuration for lower costs and/or higher capacity. Investigate the configuration of acid/proton membrane/neutral salt buffer/alkaline membrane/alkaline. The rationale is that a pair of proton membrane plus alkaline membrane is cheaper than a bipolar membrane and the introduction of a neutral buffer section will increase capacity (but with additional volume). The evaluation of costs saving and capacity increase versus volume increase will determine the competitiveness of this approach. Investigate the configuration of acid/proton membrane/alkaline with a bulky cation.
Comparison of results with those of the /lead acid electrode/acid/bipolar membrane/alkaline/metal hydride electrode and the existing commercially available single lead acid and metal hydride batteries. Comparison will be made in terms of energy density (per unit area, unit mass, and unit volume) and power density (per unit area, unit mass, and unit volume).
Develop a prototype of a 12V five-cell dual electrolyte hybrid battery according to previous results and the results from stage 1.
Design and test dual electrolyte-hybrid cell for capacity in multi-cell design and for reliability (life-time). To provide a design of a 5-cell serial battery with overall voltage > 12.0 V to replace an existing lead-acid 12 V battery. Depending on the results of the previous stage, The design will be made with one of the three configurations: i) lead acid electrode/acid/bipolar membrane/alkaline/nickel hydride electrode ii) lead acid electrode /acid/proton membrane/neutral buffer/alkaline membrane/alkaline/nickel hydride electrode iii) lead acid/acid/proton membrane/alkaline with bulky cations/nickel hydride electrode. To increase the capacity of the previously proven capacity of 20 mA per cm2 x 4 hours at 2.45 V for the hybrid Pb-acid/Ni-MH cell; To develop the hybrid-cell with reversible performance in > 100 charge-discharge cycles; and To evaluate the applicability of dual-electrolyte cell for deep discharge, fast discharge, and rapid charging.
A design of 5-cell battery with total voltage of 12.0 V. Results of charge/discharge cycles, energy density, power density, and life-time.
Preparation of the Feasibility Study Report
The objective of this task is to prepare the Feasibility Study Report according to the deliverables and findings obtained from the past 2 stages. Results/Outcome: The finalized version of the Feasibility Study Report ready to be accepted